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普利策建筑評論家保羅·戈德伯格訪談:2024年建筑評論界“喧囂多于清晰”...第1張圖片

“喧嘩而缺乏清晰度”,美國著名建筑評論家保羅·戈德伯格評價2024年的建筑評論
Architecture criticism in 2024 defined by "shouting and not a lot of clarity" says Paul Goldberger

由專筑網鄭京,小R編譯

著名建筑評論家保羅·戈德伯格認為,新聞從傳統印刷到在線新聞的變革在建筑評論領域引發了一些“混亂”,這既有利也有弊。

保羅·戈德伯格曾獲得普利策杰出批評獎,他在20世紀70年代和80年代曾擔任《紐約時報》的駐社建筑評論家,當時的建筑正值后現代主義的鼎盛時期。

在談到近幾十年來有關建筑中不斷變化的重點時,戈德伯格認為人們更加關注社會責任了。他說:“人們更愿意處理問題,將建筑視為社會不平等的象征,比如近期社會上關于在被稱為“億萬富翁街”的曼哈頓街上建造摩天大樓的討論!

The transition from print to online journalism has led to "chaos" within architecture criticism that has upsides as well as downsides, author Paul Goldberger tells Dezeen in this exclusive interview.
Pulitzer Prize-winner Goldberger served as the in-house architecture critic for The New York Times in the 1970s and '80s during the zenith of postmodernism.
He spoke to Dezeen about the changing priorities within architecture discourse in recent decades, including a greater focus on social responsibility.
"There is a greater willingness to deal with issues and to deal with architecture as a symbol of social inequity," he said.
As an example, he pointed to the conversation surrounding recently built skyscrapers on the Manhattan street colloquially known as Billionaire's Row.

普利策建筑評論家保羅·戈德伯格訪談:2024年建筑評論界“喧囂多于清晰”...第2張圖片
▲ “億萬富翁街”是人們給中央公園附近一組豪華住宅摩天大樓起的綽號/David Sundberg拍攝
Billionaire's Row is the nickname given to a cluster of luxury residential skyscrapers near Central Park. Photo by David Sundberg


戈德伯格說:“這些57街的超高層大樓,它們在美學上有所不同。哪些建筑更好,哪些建筑次之,哪些作為一個建筑作品來看更成功,這些討論雖然并非無效,但也不是完整的。

我們必須將其置于這樣一個背景下:每一座大樓都是社會不平等的深刻有力象征,這種不平等在這個社會中變得越來越明顯。這些建筑物作為物理對象越來越引人注目,我認為這超越了美學上的差異!

戈德伯格將這種價值觀的轉變與所謂的“名人建筑”文化聯系在一起。在“名人建筑”中,建筑師因其設計的作品而出名。另一個影響價值觀的因素是建筑師在設計時加入越來越多對社會和環境問題的考慮。

他引用了自己著作的《建筑為何重要》一書中的一個關于社會責任和建筑的附錄作為這種轉變的例子,該書于2009年出版,頗具影響力。


人們“夸大”了對網紅建筑師的追捧

但是,戈德伯格認為追捧“名人建筑師”和追求社會責任建筑這兩件事并非相互排斥的,他警告人們不要將這些術語看作是“絕對”的。

他說:“我們處于一個更加理解社會責任和建筑以及建筑師需要做出不同貢獻的時期。我認為我們的文化過于迷戀名人,并將名人建筑師推上了不切實際的高度,而現在我們又可能正在過分貶低他們或試圖超越理性地避免他們!

他認為,建筑師本身追求名人地位的想法被夸大了。

“我認為媒體對‘名人癡迷追求名人建筑師’的說法是有些夸大的,有時這并不完全是建筑師主導的,而更多地是由文化對名人的廣泛關注所推動的,”戈德伯格說。

他將名人建筑師的傳統追溯到極具影響力的美國建筑師弗蘭克·勞埃德·賴特身上,他說:“在建筑史上,最偉大的吹牛之王是弗蘭克·勞埃德·賴特,而他碰巧也是有史以來最偉大的建筑師之一。賴特在利用媒體方面很有天賦,他編造了自己的一部分歷史。而如今玩這些扯謊游戲的工具在不斷發展和變化。它不是一個新的說法,只是呈現工具變了!


沒有人擁有永遠的權威

隨著新聞業越來越多地轉向網絡,戈德伯格指出,在其職業生涯中,建筑評論發生了重大變革。

他說,由此產生了聲音泛濫,特別是在社交媒體上,導致了建筑話語的一片嘈雜,與20世紀中后期大不相同。

“當時我在《紐約時報》,它在新聞界以及世界上都有一種霸權地位,”戈德伯格回憶道,“當時我們對城市發生的事情持批評態度,《紐約時報》的意見幾乎沒人不關注。而如今,沒有任何單一的事物能引導公共話語,而存在著大量的發聲卻缺乏清晰性!

"If you look at the 57th Street supertall towers, while there are aesthetic differences from one to the other – and some are better than others and more successful as works of architecture – that whole discussion, while it's not invalid, is incomplete," Goldberger told Dezeen.
"It has to be set within the context of the fact that every one of them is a powerful symbol of profound social inequalities that are becoming more and more marked in this society," he continued.
"Those buildings are more and more conspicuous as physical objects, and I think that overrides the aesthetic differences."
Goldberger links this shift in values to the waning of so-called starchitecture culture – where individual architects become famous for their work – and the growing consideration of social and environmental issues in architecture.
He cited an addendum in a new edition of his influential 2009 book Why Architecture Matters that delves into social responsibility and architecture as an example of this shift.

Obsession with starchitects "exaggerated"
However, Goldberger believes that starchitecture and socially responsible architecture are not mutually exclusive – warning against considering these terms in "absolutes".
"We are in a period where there's a much greater understanding of social responsibility and the need of architecture and architects to do different things," he said.
"I think our culture was far too much in thrall of celebrity and built up starchitects beyond reason, and now we are probably putting them down or trying to avoid them beyond reason."
He suggests the idea that architects themselves have sought celebrity status has been overstated.
"I think the obsession with starchitects was always somewhat exaggerated – never as all-consuming as the media might have had it – and that was not completely architect-driven so much as driven by the culture's broader focus on celebrity," he said.
Goldberger traces the starchitect tradition back to hugely influential American architect Frank Lloyd Wright.
"The greatest bullshit artist in the history of architecture was Frank Lloyd Wright – he also happened to have been one of the greatest architects who has ever lived," said Goldberger.
"[Wright] fabricated parts of his own history – he was very gifted at exploiting the media," he continued.
"The vehicles people have at their disposal to play those games evolve and change. It's not entirely new, it's just that the tools change."

"Nobody has the authority"
Architecture criticism has undergone a major shift during Goldberger's career as journalism has increasingly moved online.
The resulting proliferation of voices, especially on social media, has led to a cacophony of architectural discourse much different to the mid-to-late 20th century, he said.
"I was at The New York Times in the day when it had a kind of hegemony over journalism and also over the world," Goldberger recalled.
"We were critical to what happened in the city. The New York Times would have an opinion about almost anything, and everybody would pay attention."
The transition away from individual critical voices having a major influence has had positive impacts and not-so-positive impacts, he argued.

普利策建筑評論家保羅·戈德伯格訪談:2024年建筑評論界“喧囂多于清晰”...第3張圖片
▲ 戈德伯格承認沒有任何一家媒體在建筑領域像《紐約時報》在20世紀80年代那樣具有影響力/Ajay Suresh拍攝
Goldberger acknowledged that no individual publication has the same level of influence over architecture that The New York Times had during the 1980s. Photo by Ajay Suresh


“我認為現在沒有任何事物能夠指導公共話語,”他說,“人們大聲喧嘩,但并沒有太多清晰度!

“在某種程度上,這是健康的。它創造了一種混亂,它使競爭場地平坦化,幾乎任何人都可以參與其中。如果某些傳統的新聞機構曾經擁有太多的權威,那現在幾乎沒有人擁有權威!

但是,盡管更加民主化的批評環境讓歷史上那些被較少代表的人們都能夠參與其中,戈德伯格對‘社交媒體主導的辯論是否能導致有益對話’感到不確定。

他說:“每個人都樂意試圖將球踢向某個方向,但我們并沒有真正就規劃、建筑和設計等嚴肅問題進行嚴肅討論。最緊迫的問題不是人們建造了什么,而是他們建造已經建造了太多。當下關鍵問題是土地保護和增長!

戈德伯格就在土地保護工作中的重要性寫作了大量的建筑批評,他認為在這類問題上,眾聲喧嘩和嚴格的批評之間可以取得平衡。

“就像慢食運動一樣,我們需要一個慢閱讀運動,”他說,“也許受眾會很小,但我認為這些批評是真實而嚴肅的。當然并非每座建筑都值得這樣,很多建筑只值得在淺層次上進行討論,因為它們不值得超過280個字符!

“我不想聽起來像一個盧德主義者,”他說,“我和大部分人一樣,在網上度過很多時間,我并不是在渴望以前那些只有印刷品的日子,而是不希望看到有一天這種文字印刷形式徹底消失!

"I don't think anything directs the public discourse now," he said. "There's a lot of shouting and not a lot of clarity."
"In some ways that's healthy. It creates a sort of chaos and it levels the playing field – almost anybody can be on it. If certain established organs of journalism had too much authority once, now, kind of nobody has the authority."
But while the more democratised critical landscape has enabled historically under-represented people to participate, Goldberger is uncertain about whether social-media-dominated debate is leading to useful conversations.
"Everybody's happy to try to kick the ball in some direction or another, but we're not really having serious discussions about serious issues in terms of planning and architecture and design," he said.
"The most urgent issue is not what people build, but how much they're building; there's too much. The critical issue is land preservation and growth."
Goldberger has written widely about the importance of criticism in the work of preservation, and believes there can be a balance between a chorus of voices and rigorous critique on these kinds of issues.
"Like the slow food movement, there's absolutely a need for a slow reading movement," he said.
"I know the audience is smaller, but I think [criticism] is real and serious – not every building is worth that, plenty of buildings are just fine to talk about on X, because they're not worth more than 280 characters, but other things are."
"I don't want to sound like a Luddite," he said. "Because, like all of us, I spend a lot of my life online – so I'm not sitting here yearning for the day when print was all there was."
"But I don't want us to be in a day where it doesn't exist at all."


攝影:Michael Lionstar

The main photo is by Michael Lionstar.

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