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光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第1張圖片
Image © Ruijing Photo

如何利用照明設計放大空間感受
How to Virtually Enlarge Spaces Using Good Lighting

由專筑網Zia,小R編譯

照明是室內設計的基本要素,它可以表達室內空間的大小和材質感受。然而,良好的照明對于較小或較擁擠的空間也尤為重要,即使空間的實際尺寸沒有改變,也能讓人感覺空間更大、更開闊。反過來說,照明不好的大空間可能會讓人感覺更小,更壓抑。為了讓室內感覺寬敞明亮,設計師可以采用幾種方法來充分利用空間,包括使用合適的燈罩和燈具類型,將其放置在最佳位置,以及整合其他元素來補充現有照明。下面列出了這些策略及其應用實例。


使用多種光源

許多住宅室內裝飾都陷入了一個誤區,那就是用一盞居中的天花板燈為房間照明。這種照明方式會造成角落陰影,使房間光線不均勻,讓人感覺房間變小,甚至可能使眼睛疲勞。設計師不應使用單一的天花板燈,而應使用分布在整個房間的多個光源。房間的功能、大小和設計會要求不同的照明位置和強度,但設計師在布置多個光源時可以遵循幾條通用規則:

One of the most essential aspects of interior design is lighting – an element that can make or break an interior space of any size or material. Yet good lighting can be especially important for smaller or more crowded spaces, making them feel larger and more open even when their literal dimensions haven’t changed. In turn, larger spaces with poor lighting may feel smaller and less welcoming than they have the potential to be. To make interiors feel aptly large and well lit, designers can rely on several tried and true methods that make the most of a space, from using the right shades and types of lights to placing them in the best locations to integrating other elements that best complement existing lighting. These strategies, as well as several examples of their application, are listed below.

Use Multiple Light Sources
Many residential interiors fall into the trap of lighting a room with a single, centered ceiling light. This type of lighting creates corner shadows and lights the room unevenly, making it feel smaller and potentially even straining the eyes. Instead of using a single ceiling light, designers should employ multiple light sources distributed throughout the room. The function, size, and design of the room will call for different light locations and intensities, but designers can follow several generalized rules when placing their multiple light sources:

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第2張圖片
© Yasuhiro Nakayama

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第3張圖片
© Adria Goula

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第4張圖片
© Yasuhiro Nakayama


在角落放置照明燈

一般來說,幽暗會讓人感覺空間變小,而明亮則會讓人感覺空間變大。當角落被陰影籠罩時,房間就會顯得收縮。角落里的燈光,無論是吸頂燈還是精心布置的燈具,都能確保房間的整個地面區域都被照亮,使房間看起來至少和實際面積一樣大。

Place Lights in Corners
Generally, darkness makes a space feel smaller, while lightness makes it feel larger. When corners are shrouded in shadows, the room appears to contract. Lights in corners, whether they are ceiling lights or strategically placed lamps, will make sure the entire floor area of the room is illuminated, making it appear at least as large as it actually is.

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第5張圖片
© Brandon Shigeta

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第6張圖片
© Elsa Young

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第7張圖片
© Elsa Young


實施分層照明

角落照明和其他天花板照明通常屬于"一般照明"的范疇。不過,設計師可以采用三種不同的照明方式:一般照明、特殊照明和環境照明。一般照明可保持室內總體光線充足,而特定照明則可讓用戶更好地觀察書桌或臺面等特定位置,而環境照明則更多地起到裝飾作用。以這種方式分層照明可確保滿足上述三種需求。因此,在房間里分配光源時,設計師應考慮到這三個"層次"。特定照明的例子包括廚房的櫥柜底燈或浴室的梳妝臺燈。環境燈光可以是蠟燭、嵌入式燈具、裝飾燈或裝飾品。

Implement Layered Lighting
Corner lighting and other ceiling lights will typically fall into the category of “general lighting.” However, designers should typically employ three different kinds of light: general lighting, specific lighting, and ambient lighting. General lighting keeps the room generally well lit, while specific lighting allows users to see better at specific points of interest such as desks or countertops. In turn, ambient lighting fulfills a more decorative function. Layering lighting in this way ensures that all three of these needs are met. Thus, when distributing light sources around a room, designers should consider all three of these ‘layers.’ Examples of specific lighting include under cabinet lighting in kitchens or vanity lights in bathrooms. Ambient lights could be candles, recessed lights, or decorative lamps or statement pieces.

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第8張圖片
© Hongyue Wang

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第9張圖片
Courtesy of Limu Design Studio

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第10張圖片
Courtesy of Limu Design Studio


添加嵌入式照明燈

嵌入式燈具有特殊的意義,因為它們能讓空間變得更大。嵌入式燈的定義是直接安裝在天花板、墻壁或其他表面內的燈具,它們可以在不占用額外空間的情況下增加額外的光線。這些燈具對天花板較低的房間特別有用,因為懸掛燈或非嵌入式天花板燈具會讓垂直方向的空間感覺更小。通過嵌入式燈具,設計師節約了空間,這可以使狹小的房間大為改觀。

Add Recessed Lights
Recessed lights are of particular significance because they literally make a space larger. Defined as lights installed directly inside a ceiling, wall, or other surface, they add extra light without taking up extra space. These fixtures are particularly useful for rooms with low ceilings, as hanging lights or non-recessed ceiling fixtures can make a vertically condensed space feel even smaller. By recessing the lights, designers increase the amount of open space, which can make a big difference in a small room.

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第11張圖片
© Christopher Rollett

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第12張圖片
© Ruy Teixeira


使用洗墻燈

洗墻燈是將光線引向房間的墻壁,通過照亮墻壁的邊界,無形中擴大了空間。它還可以用來將視線引向某些積極的設計方面,如藝術品或其他建筑特征。嵌入式照明是洗墻燈的一種應用,是一種雙重有效的策略。另一種方法是安裝軌道燈,可以手動將其打向墻壁。

Wash Walls with Light
Washing walls means directing light toward a room’s walls, which virtually expands the space by lightening its boundaries. It can also be used to direct the gaze toward certain positive design aspects, such as artwork or other architectural features. Recessed lighting is one way to wash walls, making it a doubly effective strategy. Another way is to install track lighting, which can be manually directed toward walls.

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第13張圖片
© Brandon Shigeta

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第14張圖片
Image © Ruijing Photo

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第15張圖片
© Kim Jae-Kyeong

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第16張圖片
© Benjamin Benschneider


在高天花板上使用吊燈

引導視線不僅適用于墻面,還可以用來突出高高的天花板。吊燈會將視線向上引,讓使用者注意到高高的天花,從而進一步擴大高大的空間感。高家具、高書架和垂直壁燈也能起到強調垂直感的作用。

Use Pendant Lights with High Ceilings
Directing the gaze is not just applicable to wall-washing, but can be used to accentuate high ceilings as well. Pendant lights draw the gaze upward, making users notice high ceilings and thus making a tall space feel taller. Tall furniture, high shelves, and vertical wall lights can also serve to emphasize verticality.

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第17張圖片
© Reutov Dimitry, Gerner Ekaterina

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第18張圖片
Courtesy of Dake Architectural Design


帶有上射燈和背光燈的設計

同時,向上照明可用于強調高天花板或讓低矮空間變得不那么局促,采用這種策略的方法很簡單,就是將光線向上引導,就像洗墻燈將引導光線一樣,可以通過向上的燈罩或某些類型的燈具來實現。與此同時,背光照明包括在某些家具物件(如櫥柜、凹槽、展示架、屏風和其他展示品)的后面添加燈光,可以營造出一種有深度的錯覺,讓人感覺空間不僅更大,而且層次更豐富。

Design with Uplighting and Backlighting
Meanwhile, uplighting can be used to emphasize high ceilings or make low ceilings feel higher. This strategy is applied simply by directing light upwards – much like wall-washing directs light horizontally – and can be facilitated through upward facing lampshades or certain kinds of specialized lightbulbs. Meanwhile, backlighting consists of adding lights behind certain furniture objects, such as cabinets, alcoves, displays, screens, and other statement pieces. This creates the illusion of depth and can make a space feel not just larger, but more complexly designed.

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第19張圖片
© Naho Kubota

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第20張圖片
© Brandon Shigeta

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第21張圖片
Courtesy of Limu Design Studio

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第22張圖片
© Daniel Aulsebrook


安裝軌道燈

軌道燈是另一種需要仔細研究的特殊策略,它結合了上述多種方法:體積小,可以節省空間;用途廣,可以滿足特定或一般照明需求;可移動,可以突出某些特點;多燈具,如果布置得當,可以讓整個房間都充滿光亮。

Install Track Lights
Track lights are another specific strategy that calls for a closer look. These combine many of the methods listed above: they are small, making them space savers; versatile, meaning they can fulfill specific or general lighting needs; moveable, allowing them to highlight certain features; and multiple, flooding the entire room with light if arranged correctly.

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第23張圖片
© Megan Taylor

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第24張圖片
© Hey! Cheese


添加鏡子或其他反光表面

鏡子是一種廣為人知的讓房間感覺更大的方法,因為它能讓可視空間增加一倍。鏡子還能反射光線,從而進一步擴大空間,自然地增強亮度,從而進一步減少陰影。鏡子越大,效果越明顯。不過,使用相對反光的材料(而不是真正的鏡子)進行設計也會產生很好的效果。例如,光亮的表面,如精心打磨的地板,甚至玻璃制品,都可以幫助反射光線,增強光線的強度,并將光線引向整個房間。

Add Mirrors or Other Reflective Surfaces
Mirrors are a well-known way of making a room feel larger, as they double the amount of visible space. That they reflect light as well enlarges the space even more, naturally intensifying the brightness and thereby reducing the shadows even further. The larger the mirror, the greater the effect. However, designing with relatively reflective materials – rather than literal mirrors – can make a big difference as well. For example, glossy surfaces like well-polished floors or even glass items can help reflect light, intensifying it and redirecting it throughout the room.

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第25張圖片
© Julia Totoli

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第26張圖片
© Naho Kubota


使用淺色家具和墻壁

最后,淺色家具和墻壁對于保持其他所有設計策略所產生的亮度和反光效果至關重要。這對增強良好的照明效果有很大幫助,而深色的墻壁和家具則會吸收強烈、分布合理的照明和反光元素所產生的額外亮度。

Use Light Furniture and Walls
Finally, light furniture and walls are essential for maintaining the brightness and reflectivity created by all these other design strategies. This goes a long way in augmenting the effects of good lighting, whereas dark walls and furniture can absorb all the extra brightness created by strong, well-distributed lighting and reflective elements.

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第27張圖片
© Gareth Gardner

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第28張圖片
© Daniel Aulsebrook

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第29張圖片
© Ruy Teixeira

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第30張圖片
© Wu Tou


有許多優秀的照明實例,其中一些只使用了其中的幾種策略,就取得了很好的效果,而另一些則幾乎使用了所有策略。中國的燈市口胡同住宅就是采用了多種照明策略的典范,純白色的墻壁和淺色的家具,吊燈突出了高高的天花板,天窗將墻壁照得通亮,嵌入式床和桌子上的特殊照明等等,這個空間結合了多種不同的照明策略,讓人感覺空間更大了。另一個很好的例子是臺灣的 22 平米公寓,通過軌道照明、白墻、特定照明、嵌入式照明和恰到好處的自然光,使一個較小的空間變得更大。每個空間都有不同的照明需求和可能性,設計師應該考慮以上列出的每種策略,但最終必須選擇適合自己空間和設計的策略。

There exist many great examples of good lighting, some of which utilize only a few of these strategies to great effect and some of which use nearly all. The Dengshikou Hutong Residence in China is one which uses many. With pure white walls and light furniture, pendant lights that accentuate the high ceilings, skylights that wash the walls with light, specific lighting over a recessed bed and table, and more, the space combines multiple different lighting strategies to make a large space feel larger. Another great example is the 22m2 Apartment in Taiwan, which is a smaller space made larger through track lighting, white walls, specific lighting, recessed lighting, and aptly placed natural light. Each space will have different lighting needs and possibilities – designers should consider each of the strategies listed above, but must ultimately choose the right ones for their space and designs.

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第31張圖片
Image © Ruijing Photo

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第32張圖片
Image © Ruijing Photo

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Image © Hey! Cheese

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第34張圖片
Image © Hey! Cheese

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第35張圖片
© Wu Tou

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第36張圖片
© Elsa Young

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第37張圖片
© Hongyue Wang

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第38張圖片
Image © Hey! Cheese

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第39張圖片
© Naho Kubota

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第40張圖片
© Benjamin Benschneider

光線對空間的直觀影響——室內光源設計策略第41張圖片
© Imagen Subliminal


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